LED dot matrix display

A dot matrix display is a display containing a two dimensional array of points, used to represent characters, symbols, or images. All displays today are dot matrix displays, but vector displays also used to exist, examples include radar displays and 1980s arcade games.

Persistence of vision

In order to achieve full control of all LEDs we need to use an optical illusion called the persistence of vision. This effect causes light which has ceased entering the eye to still be seen for a little while after it has disappeared.


Multiplexing is the combination of multiple signals over shared medium. In this case, we will be using human vision to multiplex time and space divided signals


We are able to fully control one (circuit) row of LEDs at a time, so by quickly looping through the rows lof LEDs, we can let the brain blur them together into a complete image.